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CCAT Index

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CCAT’s Truth and Reconciliation subcommittee presents the CCAT Index. Our goal is to support tribunals’ commitment to cultural competency and access to justice for Indigenous Peoples. In each edition of the Index, we will present information and source material on a variety of topics. We will touch on histories and consequences of oppression as well as stories of resilience, reclaiming, and rebuilding. For more information, see the Learning Resources Page.



Canada has made more than 350 inquiries or commissions into all sorts of issues since confederation.  The goal of an inquiry is to fully and impartially investigate issues of national importance.  Inquiries make non-binding findings and recommendations. Here is a flavour of some of Canada’s commissions by ethnic group.

Choose a report to see Canada’s concerns, objectives, and process.

First Nations

Land: Canada established commissions to negotiate treaties, determine reserves, and address claims.

Band Creation and Membership

Governance and other issues

1923-24 Commission to Investigate and Report Upon the Affairs of the Six Nations Indians (including education, health, morality, election of chiefs, powers assumed by council, administration of justice, soldiers’ settlement)
1946-47 Commission of Indian Affairs (Mi’qmak and Maliseet – covering concerns such as the failure to live up to treaty obligations, band membership, enfranchisement, operation of Indian schools, social and economic status and living conditions)
1959 Royal Commission to Investigate the Unfulfilled Provisions of Treaties 8 and 11 as they Apply to the Indians of the Mackenzie District
1986-88 Commission of Inquiry Concerning Certain Matters Associated with the Westbank Indian Band

Who are they?

What have they done?



Chinese and Japanese

Other Ethnic or Religious Groups

1904-05 Royal Commission on Italian Immigration (to Inquire into the Immigration of Italian Labourers to Montreal and the Alleged Fraudulent Practices of Employment Agencies)
1900-02 Commission to Investigate Hindu Claims Following Refusal of Immigration Officials to Allow over 300 Hindus Aboard the S.S. Komagata Maru to Land at Vancouver